The Panavia Tornado was a collaboration between the UK, Italy and Germany. It was originally known as the MRCA (multi role combat aircraft) and was produced in three variants; an IDS (Interdictor Strike) fighter bomber, an ECR (Electronic Combat Reconnaissance) for the (SEAD) suppression of enemy air defences role, and the ADV (Air Defence Variant) interceptor fighter aircraft.

The Panavia Aircraft GmbH consortium consisted of British Aerospace (BAe), Aeritalia of Italy, and the German company MBB. It first flew in 1974 and was introduced into operational service in 1979-1980. It replaced various different aircraft in the three countries due to it's multirole design. 922 aircraft were built across all three variants, and, apart from the tri-national consortium, the aircraft was only operated by one other air force - the Royal Saudi Air Force - partly purchased under the now infamous Al Yamama contract.

The three nations established a tri-national training facility at RAF Cottesmore in Rutland, England, which soon became well-known as the TTTE - Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment.

The Tornado was retired from RAF service in 2019 after 40 years of outstanding service, including during the Kosovo and Bosnia Wars in the former Yugoslavia, the Gulf Wars, the Iraq War, the Libyan civil war, and was operated in Afghanistan, Yemen, and Syria.